This page lists a non-conclusive sample of the projects that have gone through the Paideia Project-Incubator:
Triangles of Truth (ToT) is an international movement of students who honor and remember Holocaust victims by working to end present-day genocide. Our mission is twofold: (i) to educate citizens from all walks of life in the history and lessons of genocide and (ii) to guide them as they run their own community-based fundraising campaigns to help meet the immediate humanitarian needs of current genocide refugees.
To date, over fifty groups and institutions across four continents have participated, realizing their powerful ability to impact the lives of others, raising $60,000 for anti-genocide civilian protection and advocacy projects. Since June 2011, Triangles of Truth has worked with i-ACT and the United Nations Refugee Agency to support early childhood education in the Darfuri refugee camps of Eastern Chad. Collectively, we have channeled our proceeds to sponsor geometry kits, writing utensils and other necessary supplies. The partnership’s next project, Little Ripples, will build the first two-preschools in the region for approximately 8,000 refugee children.
Musical Shabbat is an original project that inspires and creates new Jewish culture in modern day Poland. Musical Shabbat aims to fuse the tradition of chazzanut, stemming from Eastern Europe, with contemporary musical styles, to create an experience of contemporary worship deeply rooted in tradition. The service, led by Rabbi Tanya Segal (first female Rabbi in Poland) incorporates traditional melodies with new musical arrangements created by a talented emerging composer Michal Pal’ko and performed by Mojše Band who specialize in interpreting 16th century Jewish popular music through current musical styles from all over the world.
Filmisreal organizes filmfestivals, programming recent Israeli fiction films, documentaries and (student)shorts of Jewish and Arab Israeli filmmakers. Over the last seven years, it has brought over 150 Israeli films and 25 filmmakers to a growing Dutch audience (Jews, Israelis, non-Jews and filmlovers) in the Netherlands.
Laboratory of Creativity – by Anna Pershukova (Ukraine)
The Jewish Culture and Arts Festival “Laboratory of creativity” is a unique event in the cultural life of the city of Lugansk. It brings together people from the entire Lugansk region, offering a wide range of opportunities for people of all ages and interests – workshops for the development of creative skills and exhibitions of artistic works, Jewish and Israeli dance training and conversations on essential Jewish questions with famous lecturers in the region.
‘Virtual Shtetl’ is a community and web portal that engages in documenting Jewish cemeteries in Poland and beyond. This project is called Memory in Stone and has as its main goal to list and take detailed pictures of all the matzevot (gravestones) that have been preserved in cemeteries in the parts of Belarus that were formerly within Polish boundaries. Wherever possible, a cemetery layout will be drafted, and later be designated on a Google map. The grave inscriptions of the matzevot will be translated into Polish and English. All the results, lists and registers of Jewish cemeteries will be published online. The chief aim of the project is to preserve Jewish heritage, while also engaging local NGOs, schools and cultural institutions in close cooperation, with added educational values.
Reaching over 100 000 unique visitors per month, Jewpop is a French-speaking web medium, which has the ambition to offer a brand new way to enter the Jewish world. It is designed primarily for an audience between 18 and 35. Jewpop is a mirror of current and past cultures and a space for the creation and expression of actual Jewish ways of life. Our will is to make Jewish and non-Jewish people discover, and like, different Jewish cultures, leaving out all kinds of hierarchy. The aim of Jewpop is also to create debate about politics, religion, culture and more. We would like to make our values live on the Internet through our website, in order to make communities meet each other.
An international Dance Company that uses dance as a tool for education and well-being.
32 Postkarten – by Torkel Wächter (Sweden)
Between 1940 and 1941 Minna and Gustav Wächter wrote 32 postcards from Hamburg to their son, Walter, in Sweden. The last postcard was sent the same day Minna and Gustav were deported. These 32 postcards tell the dramatic story of the Wächter family from Hamburg. A story about how the Nazi takeover of Germany affected Minna, Gustav and their three sons. 32 Postcards – Last Post from Nazi Germany is indeed a story about suffering and persecution, but it is also a story of love and courage and a family struggling to keep together during a time when their world is about to be obliterated.
Jewrnalism – by Klaudia Klimek (Poland)
Jewrnalism is a network of young Jewish journalists from Central and Eastern Europe. It is also a multimedia info-activism platform which provides journalists with tools, ideas and inspiration todiversify and improve media coverage of the region. Jewrnalism offers their materials to Jewish American, Israeli and Western European media editors, both in video, online and print form, thereby expanding readers’ awareness and understanding of contemporary Jewish life.
Shituf Peula is a Jewish volunteer youth initiative aimed at developing partnerships between young Jews and Ukrainian Jewish Communities around voluntarism. The three main goals of Shituf Peula include community building, Jewish learning and strengthening a spirit of activism. In the first stage of the project fellows attended a 2-day seminar about volunteering. Positive feedback resulted in the establishment of Shituf Peula as a grassroots organization and a week-long volunteering youth camp.Currently, the project work revolves around networking, communication with other communities and content development.
Jews Go Green is an internet platform on Judaism and sustainability. It includes information about Jewish sources and tips for an environmentally conscious living. The campaign supports the Jewish communities in Germany and the site is open to all interested visitors. Are you a student, student trainer or an instructor on the subject: Judaism and Environmental studies? Want to run your household ecologically and Jewish? We are here for you! Our message sounds like this: Judaism and green thinking belong together! Together for Tikkun Olam – a better world!
The project proposes the transformation of heritage sites into places for study and meeting, through which new emergent meanings and significance can be generated for this heritage. The Beit Project uses a methodology derived from Talmudic studies, applying this methodology to the heritage site itself as ‘text’. As in Talmud, where technical issues lead to universal questions, the thoughtful study of the site’s multiple layers will lead to universal questions related to our city and society (For example, locating the Beit project in an old Ghetto, may lead us to study contemporary urban and social segregation.) Study will incorporate work in pairs, as in the traditional Hevruta model, which develops listening and dialogical ability. The “nomadic Beit Midrash” visits temporarily elected sites. Folded in 4 travelling trunks, pupils assemble the Beit sheds whose form is a modern interpretation of the temporary dwelling of the Sukkah. Activities are carried out in these “travelling sukkot”, which travel across Europe.
Ktav Et is an academic journal for young Jewish Studies researchers. Ktav Et aims at providing a stepping stone for the academic careers of aspiring academics and at providing pre-PhD students and researchers with opportunities to publish, evolve and ultimately contribute to the development of Jewish studies.
Midrash Lab combines different aspects of the creation of modern Jewish culture with innovative Jewish education. The idea consists of creating modern Midrashim (interpretations) of classical Jewish texts through various disciplines of art. Each of the art Midrash is being created in connection with one of five Megilot that is studied around a specific holiday.
Jeneration was established in 2007 to provide a place to question, explore and learn together through study, pray and travel. Jeneration also seeks out and works with Jews to support them in creating new initiatives and developing their own visions of Jewish life. The organization today offers a wide variety of programming, from local workshops and programs on campuses to genocide awareness and heritage trips to Poland.
Live and Learn in Jewish Venice – programming for the Venice Center for International Jewish Studies. In 2016 the Venetian Ghetto will celebrate its 500th anniversary. For centuries, the Ghetto has been not only a place of segregation but also a meeting place of many cultures. In the Venice Ghetto Jewish culture was nurtured and thrived and from there it spread to many other parts of the world. To recognize and commemorate the shaping power of the Ghetto for Jewish life and its historical connections to other cultures, The Venice Center for International Jewish Studies is dedicated to promoting and facilitating advanced academic study and research, ongoing student and adult learning in Jewish studies, and the enhancement of Jewish life and culture in the Ghetto today.
The project aims to expand and deepen the programs available through the Sefer Center to Jewish and non-Jewish youth aged 18-35 in the FSU, with an interest in academic Jewish studies. These programs provide a unique chance for them to study with leading international academics and to trace the roots of the Jewry of their region. In particular, it focuses on field studies including lectures, field trips and social events, in places of historical significance.
creative outreach programming for young unaffiliated Jews in Prague. This is an open and diverse project that offers multiple programmes to bring Prague’s Jews closer to their roots and attract them to the existing Jewish communities. It aims to provide something for everyone who wants to explore their Jewish origins, from a ‘Read Hebrew Crash Course’, to ‘Services for Beginners’, to ‘Introduction to Judaism’ sessions or Jewish cuisine tutorials. These small group courses are affordable, welcoming, entertaining and, above all, friendly. The project is the first of its kind in Prague and is carried out by a young and motivated team from the local Jewish Liberal Union.
JewF.I.S.H. is a start-up in informal Jewish education, which brings innovative programming to young people in FSU cities, using traditional methods of Jewish study such as Beit-Midrash and Hevruta, to introduce both contemporary culture such as movies, literature, theatre etc. and traditional content (Torah, Talmud, Midrash). The main format is 1-3 days educational event, which includes Beit-Midrash, Parashat-ha Shavua, workshop, movie discussions etc.)
The musical “Soviet Zion” is set in an obscure region of the former Soviet Union known as Birobidzhan, an area of Siberia that was set aside in the 1920’s as a homeland for Russian Jewry. It was Stalin’s response to Zionism, which the Stalinist govornment at the time found enormously threatening: fearing that the several million Jews in Russia would turn their back on the Motherland in favour of Zionism, the Kremlin set about establishing Birobidzhan as an alternative Jewish homeland; a secular Yiddish state, as opposed to the religiously motivated Hebrew state of Zion. This happened many years before the State of Israel was actualised, making the JAR (Jewish Autonomous Region, otherwise known as Birobidzhan) the first Jewish homeland in modern times.
The Jidysz.net group have developed a number of different computer and cultural projects connected to Yiddish. Among these are advanced algorithms for open source platforms such as MediaWiki or Joomla, enabling the RTL (right-to-left) writing system, which is also useful for Hebrew. They have also developed a Yiddish keyboard for all major operating systems, as well as the largest post-war Yiddish-Polish dictionary (online). They are also concluding work on the Hunspell Yiddish dictionary for spell check for, i.a., OpenOffice, Firefox and the entire Mac OS X. All this work is done on free license and open source. They also emit Yiddish radio in Poland.
The Pixrael Project was launched in 2008 on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the Israeli state and the EU Year of Intercultural Dialogue. The purpose was to present the 60-year-old state differently from the usual representation in the mass media. More than 2000 photos were submitted and the 60 best were selected by a professional jury and became the photo exhibition. In 2009 the ‘Pixrael Tel-Aviv 100’ online photo competition focused on the city of Tel-Aviv’s 100th birthday. The pictures were exhibited in several places in Hungary, and the project was also supported by an art workshop that focused on the integration of traditional Jewish iconography in modern applied arts. Pix.Rael’s out-door exhibitions have been using tarpaulin. This material has excellent tensile strength but it is considered as a hazardous waste. Pix.Rael Recycle therefore invited young Jewish designers to re-think traditional Jewish art by using the fabric of the last exhibitions for the new one. Handicraft workshops open to the general student population were set up during Sukkot, where the participants made personal objects and became familiar with contemporary Jewish design. By using this material, they encouraged environmentally friendly art in a unique Jewish context.
“Retrieving the local collective memory about Jewish personalities in Braila” by Adriana Elena Dumitrescu (Romania)
The project collects testimonies for publication in a book for students, teachers and the wider public, to educate the people of Braila about the history of the Jewish community, celebrate the city’s minority communities and help restore a sense of civic pride in its cultural heritage.
Engaging your body, mind and spirit through a combination of dynamic movement and engaging in sacred texts. Workshops have taken place in Austria, Britain, Greece, Germany, Israel, Italy and the US.
“The Shuk”- by Ami Yares (Israel)
The Shuk is a group of dedicated musicians and educators who use Jewish music as a focal point for strengthening Jewish identity. They work with interactive and experimental learning through workshops and concerts for Jewish communities in Europe and beyond.
“Wandering Books, Sfarim Nosim” – by Sergey Kulchevich and Oleksandr Bobrovsky (Ukraine)
Sfarim Nosim takes knowledge about Jewish culture and tradition to small Jewish communities in the Ukraine by using informal teaching methods such as workshops and discussions. The project also aims at dealing with issues relevant to the Jewish population of the particular area.
Places of Uncertainty and Memory – by Marion Kahnemann (Germany)
An art installation in Dresden by acclaimed sculptor Marion Kahnemann, discussing the exclusion of Jews from the public sphere during the Shoah and relating to the danger of rising neo-Nazism in Saxony today.
“Exchange Program for Jewish Youth” by Hanna Baranouskaya –(Belarus)
The possibilities of living and exercising “Jewishness” are still not fully realized among the Jewish youth of Belarus. By encountering a model from a more experienced community and exchanging ideas, the Belarus Jewish youth could use the example and develop their own independent modes to practice their identity. In return, the Belarus community offers Western Europeans a rich Jewish heritage and history with an insight into what it means to be a Jew in a different setting. The project has since expanded to include the Jewish communities of Estonia, Lithuania, and Belarus – as well as Sweden and Norway. A joint-seminar will take place in Strasburg in June 2010, and will be supported by the European Youth Center and the European Youth Foundation.
The “Mystorin” theatre group, lead by Israeli theatre director and visual artist Yulia Ginis, performs “Sinagoga” a theatre piece based on the Talmud. The show and accompanying educational sessions have met enthusiastic audiences in various locations in Serbia, Romania, Poland and Israel.
“Blickwechsel – Judisches Leben in Deutschland” – by Sarah Kinzel and Esther Radoy (Germany)
Blickwechsel expands young Germans’ view of Judaism to topics beyond the Shoah, and has been implemented in high schools and youth centres in Berlin. It includes classes giving an overview of Jewish history, customs and traditions, the introduction of Jewish artists, visits to Jewish cultural sites and a study of the commonalities between Jewish and Non-Jewish tradition and culture. Long-term, the program aim is to expand the target group and to develop teachers’ training.
“Family Days – Jewish Education” by Daniel Katz, Alexander Smolianitski and Tanya Smolianitski (Germany)
Family Days invites individuals of all ages and both cultures to fun-filled programs of Jewish content with age-appropriate activities. Starting in 2003, Family Days has had over 1000 participants in 40 events in six synagogues. We wish to increase the number of themes, sessions, communities, and beneficiaries; cultivate key community contacts; and introduce two-day programs.
Unique features of Family Days:
- includes all ages
- multicultural and bilingual programming (Russian, German)
- team diversity (rabbis, educators, community leaders, youth leaders, translators)
The project connects Jewish youngsters from less fortunate families to become active members of the community, as well as gain employment to provide for their families. Starting with a group of 10 boys, the project provides full scholarships, room and board for one year. The ‘live and learn’ program combines Jewish education and vocational training, specifically as jewellers and cutters of precious stones. Participants also volunteer in the Jewish community and are responsible for different social activities.
“Environmental Campaign” by Poppy Berelowitz (UK)
The campaign is based on Jewish sources, which teach us to cultivate the natural world and enhance its capacity to support life for a sustainable future. The Jewish Environment campaign in the UK will bring together communal organisations to raise awareness, take action and advocate for environmental sustainability, reaching out to a wide audience. The campaign will be led by members of The Jewish Social Action Forum (a group of Jewish organisations and the 4 major synagogue movements in the UK) who are in a unique position to work cross-communally and build on the success of previous joint campaigns on various social issues such as Darfur and Fairtrade.
“The Nachman Tales – The Animated Stories from Bratslav” – by Gyora Gal Glupczynski (Belgium)
Award-winning filmmaker Glupczynski has adapted and animated selected tales of Nachman from Bratzlav. They will be made available for theme-based screenings and discussions by educators. The films will be accompanied by educational material and an interactive project website. The target groups are European Jewish schools and institutions, with the ultimate aim of reviving Jewish folktales that inspire and speak to different
“Shabbat Angels” – by Misha Sharf (Russia)
“Shabbat Angels” takes hold of various challenges at the same time. Young people come to Jewish elderly people’s homes each Friday, organizing Shabbat celebrations, arranging dinner and interacting with the elderly, giving the experience of homemade Shabbat. Special trainings are organized for the students, teaching them how to lead the Shabbat ceremony, making it interesting both for the elderly and youth. A limited version of the project was already working in Hillel St. Petersburg, and has been expanded upon by building on its great success.
“Amalie Beer Salons” by Ksenia Potapova (Russia/Sweden)
The project aims at getting European Jews acquainted with the epoch of Haskalah in Europe and particularly with the culture of the literary and musical salons hosted by Jewish women in Germany. The first event took place on March 13th, 2008, in the Jewish Community of Stockholm and was devoted to the history of the Haskalah in Europe, and to musical and literary salons, hosted and inspired by Jewish women. In the attempt to recreate the ambience of the era, poems by Heine, Goethe and other German poets were recited. As an apogee of the salon the participants got a chance to listen to some beautiful old Jewish songs, performed by the professional musicians. Financial support was provided by the Jewish Library and informational and technical support by the Jewish Community of Stockholm. Ksenia has since conducted a number of salons for the Stockholm audience.
‘The Engineer of Chelm’ is a new play, commissioned by Joel Stanley and The Merkavah Theatre Company, based on the Book of Jonah and addressing issues of environmental responsibility. Rebecca Nesvet wrote the script and seven performances have so far token place at the Jewish Museum London, reaching about 250 audience members, both Jewish and non-Jewish, adults and children. The project also includes an educational pack, for students to explore the issues and engage in both Jewish learning and environmental reflection and activism.
“Women’s Health from a Jewish Perspective” – by Yelena Krasilshchik (Russia)
Yelena, a Paideia graduate, is a staff-member of the International Women’s Jewish Organization “Project Kesher” and coordinator of “Beit Binah” – a program that encourages women in to engage in Torah study and link traditional text to modern life issues. During the Incubator, Yelena developed a program for Kesher dealing with issues of Women’s Health.
“Inspired Jewish Leadership” - by Elena Feldman and Irina Sklyankina (Russia)
Project Kesher seeks to “uncover, chronicle, and transmit to a broad public the rich history” of Jewish women in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The project trains 20 women, in Russia in Voronezh, Vladimir and Ivanov who will film interviews with Jewish women leaders and scan their primary source materials.
“Kesher Hadash” - by Olena Pysina & Vlada Bystrova (Ukraine)
The project seeks to develop and support Jewish identity building and activism in women ages 20-35 in Russia and Ukraine, to inspire them to take an active role in building Jewish life. Using the incentive model often incorporated in computer games, the participants, working in partnership with their communities, will be eligible to get funding and resources as they jointly achieve levels of proficiency set by the program.
“Meeting of Generations” – by Daria Gutkina (Belarus)
The project aims at uniting the Mogilev reform community through activities for different generations. “Mifgash Dorot” (Meeting of generations) enables intergenerational activities by arranging Shabbat services twice a month, joint cultural and educational programs once a month, and by circulating a newsletter about Jewish community life in Mogilev every two months.
Jazz Midrash is a songbook containing mainly traditional Hebrew songs together with two CD’s recorded by the group Klezmaholics: one containing songs from the songbook (in contemporary arrangements) and one containing newly written, polish language songs based on Jewish Legends. The publication will be followed by small club-street festivals of Jewish music in several
Polish towns – former centres of Jewish life. Piotr’s band have toured countries such as Poland, Ukraine, Sweden, Lithuania, Romania and Hungary.
“Derech – The Way” – by Tamas Paszternak (Slovakia)
Derech is a project by the Jewish community of Kómarno, providing people in small communities the opportunity to be part of Jewish life. The program brings together culture, text, traditions and contemporary life in small communuities, with educational and cultural activities taking place on a monthly basis. The activities are connected to holidays, when services are provided with comments by invited guests, along with the display of Jewish art. The project is also meant as a model for other small communities.
“[dʒu:'krein]: The Jewish Genealogy and Travel Guide Center” – by Darina Privalko (Ukraine)
The treasures of the Ukrainian Jewish heritage often remain unknown and neglected, as Ukraine is perceived as a country lacking qualified Jewish guides and an efficient infrastructure to make Ukrainian Jewish journeys not only remarkable, but also safe and comfortable.
- JUkraine’s mission is to raise awareness and create excitement about Ukrainian Jewish heritage, as well as contemporary local Jewish life by making Jewish Ukraine accessible to visitors from around the world.
- JUkraine develops Jewish travel routes, trains professional guides, conducts genealogical research and connects families to their relatives living in Ukraine.
- JUkraine creates study tools and offers Jewish education and career opportunities to Ukrainian Jews, with or without prior Jewish knowledge or involvement.
- JUkraine contributes to the preservation of historical landmarks and sustainability of Ukrainian Jewish communities.
- JUkraine serves individuals and families, organized tour groups, youth study trips, congregational missions, as well as businesspeople and Jewish community professionals seeking Ukrainian connections
Habitus is an international journal of Diaspora literature and culture. The magazine is poised to make a lasting impact with its unique global vision, world-class writing, and original translations. Habitus is a Jewish magazine that takes the whole world seriously. Each issue will focus on a different city, penetrating deep into the emotional and political substance of the urban environment. Each new city will be a venue for illuminating a different corner of the world, and a different perspective on the issues that define us. Since the Incubator 2007, Habitus 03, dedicated to Buenos Aires, 04 (New Orleans), 05 (Moscow), 06 (Mexico City) and 07 (Berlin) have been published.
“The Jewish Salons” by Benny Bailey, Israel
Our vision is to create an international non-institutional network that produces relevant Jewish cultural events for young Jews and their social circles. In communities where these events expose a need for a permanent venue of alternative Jewish cultural content, a permanent Salon venue will gradually be established. Salon events will reflect the young generation’s mode of interest in it’s Jewish identity at the early 21st century and will also attract young Jews who are today on the fringe of Jewish communal life or are not affiliated at all. Once permanent Salon venues are established, they will include a café-bar, dynamic exhibition and performance space, and an Audio-Visual library that will resonate with the multiple aspects of the modern Jewish experience. European salons now exist in Amsterdam, Berlin, Prague and Vienna.
“The Virtual Jewish Graveyard in Rijeka – Memories of a Graveyard” by Filip Kohn (Croatia)
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Jewish community of Rijeka, Croatia, which was created in 1781, numbered 2,500 people. Currently there are only 200 active members remaining in the community. The community’s past is represented by the graveyard, which holds 550 graves. The graveyard, which is the community’s property, tells its heritage, and should therefore be preserved.A web-based database will hold all relevant information and research about the community’s heritage. Since the Incubator, Filip has received funding for his project, recruited volunteers and collected data, both textual and visual, for most of the graves in the graveyard and uploaded many of them to the website.
La Javura is a Spanish-speaking egalitarian community in Spain founded in 1997. It is the only Spanish-speaking community which has experimented with bringing Kabalat Shabbat and volunteer Spanish-speaking educators via Skype directly into the community center, the homes of the members and geographically isolated, Spanish-speaking Jews. During a 4-year pilot project started in 2005, the incorporation of Skype, internet and speaker telephones produced a 5-fold participation increase for Kabalat Shabbat services, Introduction to Judaism, Torah cantillation and Hebrew language classes. From these efforts, 6 persons passed the Liberal Beit din in Paris and two satellite groups formed in Seville and La Coruña.
The Jewish Agency for Israel in Hungary opened an Israeli Cultural Center in Budapest in autumn 2010, to provide young Jews with a place to encounter Israeli life and culture, and promote Israel among Hungarians and fight anti-Semitism. The institution will house the Jewish student and youth movements of Budapest and offer theatrical performances, Israeli movies, concerts, exhibitions, lectures, seminars, and permanent services including Hebrew Ulpan, restaurant, café and sports facilities. Ana came to the Project-Incubator for a feasibility study, including interviews with Hungarian Jewish leaders to survey the need and support for the Beit Israel. She also had to inquire about their expectations, ideas and the probability of participation, as well as their motivations to cooperate with JAFI in this project. Following the final decision to construct the ICC, Marcell Kenesei, a Paideia alumn working with the project, attended the PI in 2009 for additional development of the center. http://izraelikultura.hu/
The European Research Center for Jewish Theatre and Performing Arts by Moti Sandak (Israel)
The aim of the project is to create a research and documentation center that will act as a hub for all activities going on in European Jewish theatre and performing arts. The first step is creating a database on the website ‘All about Jewish Theatre’, ultimately creating an Online Museum of Jewish Theatre and Performing Arts. The center will be used by scholars, artists and decision makers. The project is a collaboration between the International Institute of Jewish & Israeli Culture and The Jewish and Hebrew Studies department at UCL – London.
The seminar on Jewish-Armenian interrelations took place in the Chair of Arabic Studies of Yerevan State University on 31 May – 5 June 2010, participants and guests including the head of the Jewish community in Armenia, the editor of the community newspaper and leading Armenian researchers, were present at the seminar. Building on the project’s success, an expansion is planned to involve participants from not only YSU and the Jewish community but also from abroad.While preparing the project I have been contacted to Jewish community members and we are planning to cooparate in some projects as organizing Hebrew courses in the community.